indus valley civilization essay pdf

All work is written to order. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! By around 2600 BCE, many of the towns and cities, The Indus Valley Civilization Is the first known Urban Culture in India. History Introduction to Indus Valley Civilisation 2. Available from: https://gradesfixer.com/free-essay-examples/the-indus-valley-civilization-a-study/, Recieve 100% plagiarism-Free paper just for 4.99$ on email, *Public papers are open and may contain not unique content. Contribution of the Indus Valley Civilisation. You can learn more and/or modify your settings in the special section. Subsequently, these “white” invaders intermingled with the indigenous “dark” population, and grew “weak” — and therefore ripe for repeated conquest. The clothes were sewn as has been indicated by the discovery of needles. Race of Indus Civilisation 3. In the nineteenth century, some scholars argued that “superior” Aryan invaders, with their horses and chariots, conquered the “primitive,” “dark,” and “weak” peoples they encountered in ancient South Asia. The rises of these ancient river valley civilizations started the first cradle of civilization. Almost all the three methods have been discovered but according to Sir John Marshall, the second method was the most popular. There is also a possibility that the Aryans who were better equipped might have conquered Indus Valley people. At first, farming settlements began around 4000 BCE, and around 3000 BCE there appeared the first signs of urbanization. Join us on Whatsapp: Click here. In the centuries to come — and again, in sharp contrast to its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt — recollection of the Indus civilization and its achievements seemed to disappear from the record of human experience. All these discoveries point to the existence of an advanced civilisation in pre-historic India which is now popularly known as Indus Valley Civilization or Harappa Culture. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! For example, some settlements appear to have been deliberately rearranged to conform to a conscious, well-developed plan. In this essay we will discuss about Indus Valley Civilisation:- 1. In the words of the archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler, the Indo-Aryan war god Indra ‘stands accused’ of the destruction. You can order Unique paper and our professionals Rewrite it for you. Ernest Brastins[?] The oldest of the civilizations is the Tigris-Euphrates civilization that dates back to 3500 to 2500BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization In 2300 B. C. the Indus Valley Civilization began developing itself into two large areas which ran along the river valleys of the Indus, Ravi and Sutlej. At Mohenjo-Daro we get a number of evidence of animal, tree and image worship also. The largest cities as many as 30,000 people. The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1600 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of the South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Communities during this era tended to align in river valleys for particular reasons. Some former Indus civilization people appear to have migrated to the east, toward the Gangetic Plain[?]. It should be remembered that Indus civilization people, like all peoples in South Asia, built their lives around the monsoon, a weather pattern in which the bulk of a year’s rainfall occurs in a four-month period. Describe and analyze the cross-cultural influences in a Mediterranean and Indus Valley context. Various objects of head dressing like ivory combs, bronze mirrors have been discovered. For all its achievements, the Indus civilization is poorly understood. In 2600 BC, the Indus Valley was verdant, forested, and teeming with wildlife. People were in the habit of using antimony also. Whether or not there was an elite class, in the end, as Kenoyer suggests, they – whether “they” were leaders or just officials – could not keep hold of the rapidly growing urban civilization, and the empire, which had at one point had more land than both Egypt and Mesopotamia, collapsed due to unknown reasons, passing on a little of its religion and none of its technology to the tribes who would later inhabit the area where a great civilization had once stood. Due to New advances and by influence from other civilizations such as the Indus over Mesopotamia and vice versa this increased the amount of change a lot. Most probably many races contributed to the evolution of Indus Valley culture and perhaps Aryans also formed an important part of them. On the other hand ornaments like girdles, nose studs, ear-rings and anklets were used by women alone. The common agricultural products of the time were wheat, barley, vegetables, cotton etc. All that scholars know is because of archaeological excavations and interpretation of the artifacts found in these digs. It is also known as the Indus Civilization because two of its best-known cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, are situated along the banks of the Indus River. These civilizations shared many characteristics that contributed to their success. Yoga also played an impor­tant part in the religious practice as is proved by the presence of ‘ring-stones’ and ‘chess-men’. The floor of the bath-room was water-tight with a clear slope towards one corner. In short we can agree with Dr. R.C. Majority of the sites developed on the banks of river Indus, Ghaggar and its tributaries. The walls of this bath were plastered with gypsum and lime morter. It is very difficult to square this hypothesis with what is known about the Indus civilization. It is interesting to note that Chanu-daro finds indicate use of lip-sticks”. The culture’s sudden appearance appears to have been the result of planned, deliberate effort. The facts are these: by the time the Central Asian peoples arrived, the Indus civilization had collapsed. In the absence of any written material or historical evidence scholars have made various speculations regarding the causes for the Decline or destruction of Indus Valley civilisation.

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