17 High quality early childhood care and education programs can improve childrenâs chances for success in later life. Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. 26 A time when physical strength and stamina reaches its peak. Future Child. In particular it can improve the lives of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable children and their families, with profound consequences for societies at large. The term minority, when used in a summary, refers to racial/ethnic minority, unless otherwise specified. Campbell F, Conti G, Heckman JJ, Moon SH, Pinto R, Pungello E, et al. Socioeconomic gradients predict individual differences in neurocognitive abilities. Hahn RA, Rammohan V, Truman BI, Milstein B, Johnson RL, Muntañer C, et al. 18 This group also self–reported better health and had a lower number of deaths.18, Furthermore, by their mid–30s the children who participated in the comprehensive early childhood development and education program had a lower risk for heart disease and associated risk factors, including obesity, high blood pressure, elevated blood sugar, and high cholesterol.10 These studies show that quality early childhood development and education programs can play a key role in reducing risky health behaviors and preventing or delaying the onset of chronic disease in adulthood.10,18, Early childhood development and education are key determinants of future health and well–being.11,19 Addressing the disparities in access to early childhood development and education opportunities can greatly bolster young children’s future health outcomes.11,12,18,20–28. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. As a result, there may be variability in the use of terms, for example, black versus African American. 2014;46(3):312–23. Advisory committee on Head Start research and evaluation: final report [Internet]. 22 Measuring the state of early child development with a comparable approach throughout the world will provide a way for societies to judge their success. History & Development of Healthy People 2020, https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/eval_final.pdf, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Relationships with parents and caregivers, Provision of transportation to and from school. 2011;101(3):512–16. 7 West Yorkshire, The effectiveness of early childhood development programs: a systematic review. 2005;15(1):169–96. Evans GW, Kim P. Childhood poverty, chronic stress, self‐regulation, and coping. Early adulthood; Physical Development; Maturation Theory (Gesell) Melanie Lancley. Economic, neurobiological, and behavioral perspectives on building America’s future workforce. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2012 Aug [cited 2018 Feb 20]. Explain dialectical thought. Other attributes of environments influence ECD as well. 14 Washington: National Academy Press; 2000. Three critical elements of healthy child development: stable, responsive, and nurturing care-giving; … Nature. 2005;15(1):117–38. Huang KY, Cheng S, Theise R. School contexts as social determinants of child health: Current practices and implications for future public health practice. 9 Success in the area of early child development requires a partnership, not only among international, national, and local agencies but, also, with the worldâs families. Maggi S, Irwin LJ, Siddiqi A, Hertzman C. The social determinants of early child development: an overview. ii Emerging adulthood greatly prolongs identity develop-ment. The mental wealth of nations. Psychol Sci. Does Head Start improve children's life chances? 21 27 Abbott-Shim M, Lambert R, McCarty F. A comparison of school readiness outcomes for children randomly assigned to a Head Start program and the program's wait list. Many in the international development community agree that child survival and child development are not in conflict but program financing in the international development community has not yet reflected this understanding. Early childhood, particularly the first 5 years of life, impacts long–term social, cognitive, emotional, and physical development.1,2 Healthy development in early childhood helps prepare children for the educational experiences of kindergarten and beyond.8 Early childhood development and education opportunities are affected by various environmental and social factors, including:3–6, Early life stress and adverse events can have a lasting impact on the mental and physical health of children.3 Specifically, early life stress can contribute to developmental delays and poor health outcomes in the future.3,4,7,25 Stressors such as physical abuse, family instability, unsafe neighborhoods, and poverty can cause children to have inadequate coping skills, difficulty regulating emotions, and reduced social functioning compared to other children their age.3,4,25, Additionally, exposure to environmental hazards, such as lead in the home, can negatively affect a child's health and cause cognitive developmental delays.8 Research shows that lead exposure disproportionally affects children from minority and low–income households and can adversely affect their readiness for school.8, The socioeconomic status of young children's families and communities also significantly affects their educational outcomes.5 Specifically, poverty has been shown to negatively influence the academic achievement of young children.5 Research shows that, in their later years, children from disadvantaged backgrounds are more likely to need special education, repeat grades, and drop out of high school.1 Children from communities with higher socioeconomic status and more resources experience safer and more supportive environments and better early education programs.1, Early childhood programs are a critical outlet for fostering the mental and physical development of young children.2 Some indicators of a high-quality early childhood development and education program include highly educated teachers, smaller classes, and lower child-staff ratios.6,9 High–quality early childhood programs can increase earning potential and encourage and support educational attainment.10, Early childhood development and education programs can also help reduce educational gaps.6,11,12 For example, Head Start is a federally funded early childhood program that provides comprehensive services for children from low–income families.12 Head Start aims to improve health outcomes, increase learning and social skills, and close the gap in readiness to learn for children from low–income families and at&nash;risk children.12 Enrolling children in full–day kindergarten after the completion of preschool has also been shown to improve academic achievement.11, Furthermore, extended early childhood programs for children up to 3rd grade, also referred to as booster programs, can provide comprehensive educational, health, and social services to complement standard early childhood and kindergarten programs.11,13 These programs help sustain and bolster early developmental and academic gains.11,13 Characteristics of such programs include:11, Quality education in elementary school is necessary to reinforce early childhood interventions and prevent their positive effects from fading over time.11 Research also shows that school quality has an impact on both the short– and long–term educational attainment of children, as well as on their health.6,14 For example, children who enroll in low–quality schools with limited health resources, safety concerns, and low teacher support are more likely to have poorer physical and mental health.14–17, The developmental and educational opportunities that children have access to in their early years have a lasting impact on their health as adults.10,18,21 The Carolina Abecedarian Project found that the children in the study who participated in a high–quality and comprehensive early childhood education program, including health care and nutritional components, were in better health than those who did not.18 The study found that, at age 21, the people who participated in the comprehensive early education program exhibited fewer risky health behaviors—for example, they were less likely to binge drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes, and use illegal drugs.
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